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Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Frontal Lobe in Autism Spectrum Disorder
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The alert successfully saved. The alert did not successfully save. Please try again later. This knowledge is instrumental in designing future studies that could link together ASD symptoms, brain processes, and connectivity abnormalities. Finally, given the nonlinear evolution of brain properties e.
Aside from helping to reconcile apparent contradictions in the literature, a better understanding of how developmental factors induce ASD-related brain changes early in development would provide invaluable insights on the pathogenesis of ASD. Performing such analyses in a multi-modal framework may also further our understanding of the dynamics of ASD-related abnormalities in brain connectivity and help resolve some of the apparent contradictions arising when comparing results across modalities. The authors want to acknowledge the contribution of Mai Khalil who has provided guidance regarding the methodology of the systematic review.
Funding acquisition: ME. Investigation: CO. Methodology: CO ME. Project administration: ME. Supervision: ME. Visualization: CO. Writing — original draft: CO. Browse Subject Areas?
Original Research ARTICLE
Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Background Although it is well recognized that autism is associated with altered patterns of over- and under-connectivity, specifics are still a matter of debate. Results Our synthesis provides relatively strong support for long-range underconnectivity in ASD, whereas the status of local connectivity remains unclear.
Conclusions The large variability in study samples and methodology makes a systematic quantitative analysis i. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. Introduction It is well recognized that autism and autism spectrum disorder ASD —hereafter used interchangeably—is associated with altered patterns of connectivity, compared to neurotypical NT controls.
Connectivity: A multi-faceted concept Brain connectivity is a broad, multi-faceted concept [ 15 ]. Over- and under-connectivity in relation with connection length. Topological specificity.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Frontal Lobe in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Developmental hypotheses. Scope of the review Taken together, these different hypotheses demonstrate the complexity of the impact of ASD on connectivity, which is most probably characterized by both generalized atypicality e. For each study, one of the authors COR extracted methodological dimensions that potentially impacted results and conclusions, such as: connectivity metrics; recording parameters sampling frequency, reference electrode, electrode grid density ; experimental paradigms e.
Download: PPT. Fig 1. Results Synthesis per methodological dimensions We first synthesized included studies across several methodological dimensions that may account for some inconsistencies in including connectivity metrics, recording parameters, experimental paradigm, and sample characteristics. ASD is characterized by long-range underconnectivity; Local overconnectivity remains uncertain As reviewed in the introduction, a prominent hypothesis is that autism is characterized by local overconnectivity and long-range underconnectivity [ 25 , 26 ].
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Fig 2. An alternative hypothesis from graph theory: A more uniform altered connectivity in ASD EEG and MEG connectivity studies using graph analysis generally report autism to be associated with sub-optimal network properties, such as less clustering, larger characteristic path, reduced eigenvector centrality a measure of the importance of nodes as communication hubs , and an architecture less typical of small-world networks [ 89 — 91 , , , , ].
Factors modulating connectivity patterns Although the hypothesized pattern of over and under connectivity in autism is a valuable conceptual generalization, many factors may modulate connectivity at a finer scale reflecting context-dependent modulations in connectivity. Topography of connectivity differences in ASD. Heterogeneity in ASD Despite these general patterns related to categorical diagnosis of ASD, several findings highlight the importance of considering variability in the ASD phenotype related to connectivity. Limitations The conclusions derived from our systematic review are limited by a few potential methodological confounders.
Statistical power. Head and brain size. Discriminant validity.
Conclusion and future directions This review illustrates the large heterogeneity of both the methods and the results of studies investigating brain electrophysiological connectivity in ASD. Table 1.
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Supporting information. S1 File. S2 File. Detailed synthesis per methodological dimensions. S1 Table. S2 Table. Acknowledgments The authors want to acknowledge the contribution of Mai Khalil who has provided guidance regarding the methodology of the systematic review. References 1. Differences in white matter fiber tract development present from 6 to 24 months in infants with autism. Am J Psychiatry. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life. England; ; — Machine learning in medical imaging.
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The Neuroscience of Autism Spectrum Disorders
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