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The Development of Anthropological Idea

But those who find that their daily lives are rendered fragile by the ongoing effects of global circuits of capital are not helpless victims of change. Sovereign debt has been turned from a political debt that was under the control of political institutions into a financialised debt that is under the control of financial markets and a source of extreme rentier accumulation Bear While this shift affected the most precarious workers in India the hardest, Bear also shows that its outcome has not been uniformly predictable. On the contrary, among shipyard workers on the Hooghly River, an alternative ethics of work continues to exist.

Bear argues that ethnographic insights that centre on everyday processes of social reproduction invite the analyst to think through proposals for new forms of public financing that move beyond mainstream economics. Among them, the most radical proposal concerns the formation of a National Wealth fund in which the government would print its own money to spend on redistribution, education, health and green infrastructure, accompanied by the creation of democratically elected boards that open banks to public scrutiny. The example of the Hooghly River shows how ethnographic insights can be generative of new theory and even normative proposals for change.

Similarly, on a disenfranchised council estate, withdrawal from electoral processes becomes a protective response in a situation where the world of daily community life is ideologically constructed as the antithesis of the world of politics Koch c. In sum, at a time when global processes of accumulation, dispossession and environmental crisis loom large, anthropologists cannot ignore the political, economic and social challenges that their informants confront.

Anthropological contributions in demonstrate how global processes are mediated in locally specific and historically contingent ways. It is precisely at this intersection that everyday processes of social reproduction, understandings of personhood and alternative ethics of care come into focus and hence the potential for anthropological theorising emerges.

But the anthropological inquiry into inequalities does not stop here. It is in the very nature of inequalities that they are unevenly distributed. In other situations, state policies work through omission or wilful neglect. This is being folded into the nation state's discourses of the good immigrant and proper citizen, and simultaneously creates its opposite, the bad immigrant and deviant citizen.

In his piece on early childhood education and care programmes, Newberry discusses how local institutions and charities responded to the aftermath of an earthquake in Indonesia by creating a particular idea of the traumatised child. This child had to be worked on to make it fit with the model of the idealised citizen who was empowered and engaging with Indonesia's globalised economy. And among Muslim reformers in Yemen, Hughes has analysed how civilisational discourses are put to use in ways that mirror the rhetoric found in international human rights discourses. But authority figures are not mere conduits for power.

Thus, scholarship in also shows how those who are tasked to implement, enforce or enact particular technologies of rule do so on terms that do not fit dominant logics of control. Forbess and James have explored how local authorities and other advice providers in the UK counter the effects of the central government's austerity regime by piecing together new patchworks of funds.

Similarly, in China, austerity politics and green capitalism have resulted in incomplete and unstable processes of accumulation that have hit rural households the hardest Pia And in his analysis of the aftermath of l'Aquila earthquake, Bock discusses how the Italian state became a key actor responsible for emergency aid, restoration and urban redevelopment.

But local state actors and bureaucrats are not the only agents who contest the disciplinary effects of bureaucratic practices: citizens, too, engage with authority in unexpected ways.

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A Vision of Anthropology for a Rapidly Changing World

Even when on the face of it citizens lend their consent to those in power, they often do so for reasons that are not known to the officials they encounter and hence challenge any straightforward idea of popular support for state authority Koch a. Long investigates what leads Riau Islanders in Indonesia to defer to state authority against their better judgement. Going beyond these approaches, Long focuses on the nature of a distinctive modality of state power that arises when citizens envision the state and its personnel as Islamic authorities. By focusing on how Riau Islanders defer to the authority of the state to deal with morally complex situations, Long invites us to rethink conventional tropes that have seen mistrust and suspicion as the antithesis to state authority.

While few people trust the official system to bring them justice, they still marshal ambiguous bureaucratic documentary procedures to reorder untenable social relations and to give teeth to oral arrangements amid economic insecurity and dubious judicial prospects. In short, the picture emerging here is one of contested spaces where claims to govern are always more fragmented, partial and contested than they might at first seem. Coercive state practices and disciplinary forms of power are important means of governing today, as they make particular world views, ideologies and market policies appear natural and legitimate.

But both governors and those who are governed engage with policies and practices in ways that are never quite exhausted by a focus on official, secular rationalities alone. What, then, about the conditions of political action in the current climate? Given the inequalities that mark the present conjuncture, how can we imagine alternative political futures Bear and Knight ? Sometimes, they are linked to processes of social reproduction. Sometimes, futures are also imagined and created through capacity building. Infrastructures, such as roads in Kyrgyzstan, become the site of intense local anticipation, the object both of hope for a materially secure future and of anxieties of entrapment Reeves Conversely, where conditions of future investment are absent, a sense of self can also be compromised, as shown by anthropological work on boredom van den Berg and O'Neill and ambiguities Berckmoes Drawing on the anthropology of ethics, Werbner suggests that ethics is not just the everyday process of subjectification in a Foucauldian sense but also an imaginary of the future and of future possibilities that go beyond the practices of the present.

At a time when the history of political silencing has come to intersect with the more recent commodification of Kurdish culture, authorship has emerged as an object of aspiration for the future. It constitutes an avenue for Kurdish women to insert themselves into struggles for political rights, discourses of history writing and even an emerging cultural market.

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And yet, while the possibilities of investing into alternative future selves are central to the formation of political agency, other temporalities also shift into focus. In his piece on Western Thessaly, Knight reassesses notions of time and temporality in the Greek economic crisis. There, people do not just focus on the future but also on the past to help them to make sense of a period of tumultuous social change. But multiple temporalities can sometimes come into conflict. In a similar vein, Zharkevich explores how the people in the former Maoist heartland of Nepal adopted previously transgressive norms during the decade of the People's War — Acts, such as eating beef and cow slaughtering, previously considered transgressive, became acceptable during this period.

While for activists these transgressions were acts of defiance animated by a prospect of a distant future, for ordinary villagers the choices often reflected necessary strategies of survival in the present moment. Similarly, across various South African cities, organisations that fight against poor living conditions often have lives outside the moments of political sphere.

Cultural relativism

Moving away from traditional ideas of social movements, Tournadre shows how everyday neighbourhood life becomes a central arena for the negotiation of politics. Susser argues that a focus on the transformative aspects of progressive grassroots movements is crucial in the face of the troubling turn to the right in elections in the United States and parts of Europe.

Visual affects also remain important. Thorleifsson argues that in Hungary the populist radical right reinforced the boundaries of the nation in relation to migrants from Muslim majority lands through particular images of the polluting migrant that served to reinforce the boundaries of Hungarianness as the righteous protector of Christian European civilisation.

To sum up, anthropological contributions in have traced the existence of alternative political agencies and their manifestations. This section has suggested that a central tension emerges between political movements and actors who aspire to different utopian futures and those who remain caught in enforced presentism.

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While has begun to make contributions, more work is expected in this area of research in the years to come. Anthropologists have always strived to take seriously the experiences of the people they live and work with. My suggestion has been that this can be done by focusing on three sets of tensions: first, between political economy processes and everyday processes of social reproduction; second, between institutionalisation and their various acts of contestation; and third, between political aspirations for the future and the demands of the past and present.

While this is not an exhaustive list, my hope is that it can provide a starting point for the diagnosis, analysis and ultimately also redress of inequalities. But the pursuit of anthropological knowledge does not operate in a vacuum. For anthropology to be able to make the kinds of interventions that I have argued it should have, it needs to be methodologically grounded and institutionally supported.

LIVING IN THE ANTHROPOCENE

In , several contributions have addressed the role of methodology and the importance of carrying out fieldwork, preferably through return visits, which has long been recognised as the bread and butter of anthropology. More broadly, the marketisation of the higher education sector has been visible in the rise in student fees, introduced by the same government, that means that students will be thousands of pounds in debt by the time they graduate with their degrees Bear Funding cuts in the higher education sector have also resulted in shorter periods of fieldwork, as a result of anthropologists being unable to get teaching relief for longer periods of time Beuving These, and related, developments are extremely worrisome for our craft.

And they pose a range of serious practical and political questions that need to be addressed: at a time when universities are coming under threat, when funding is cut and when the education sector is being made ever more subservient to the dictates of neoliberal rule, what can anthropologists do? How can they secure jobs, not just for those lucky enough to have positions now but also for future generations of young scholars?


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The anthropology of race and ethnicity in sport

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