During the s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas.
Many moved west into the Piedmont , or further into Kentucky and Tennessee. Such migration also followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations. Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery and manumissions increased in the two decades following the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an resolution for gradual abolition in the state.
However, by that time the increased demand from the settlement of the lower South states had created a large internal market for slavery. The invention of the cotton gin in the late-eighteenth century had made profitable the cultivation of short-staple cotton in the uplands, which was widely practiced. The American Colonization Society proposed to " repatriate " free blacks and freed slaves to Africa by establishing the new colony of Liberia and paying for transportation.
But most African-Americans wanted to stay in their birthplace of the United States and achieve freedom and rights there. For a period, many emigrants to Liberia from Virginia and North Carolina embarked from the port of Norfolk. Joseph Jenkins Roberts , a free person of color native to Norfolk, emigrated via the American Colonization Society and later was elected as the first president of Liberia , establishing a powerful family.
She had just sailed from the West Indies , where there had been an outbreak of yellow fever.
The port health officer ordered the ship quarantined. After eleven days, a second inspection found no issues, so she was allowed to dock.
A few days later, the first cases of yellow fever were discovered in Norfolk, and a machinist died from the disease on July 8. By August, several people were dying per day, and a third of the city's population had fled in the hopes of escaping the epidemic. No one understood how the disease was transmitted. With both Norfolk and Portsmouth being infected, New York banned all traffic from those sites. Neighboring cities also banned residents from Norfolk. The epidemic spread through the city via mosquitoes and poor sanitation, affecting every family and causing widespread panic.
The number of infected reached 5, in September, and by the second week, 1, had died in Norfolk and Portsmouth. As the weather cooled, the outbreak began to wane, leaving a final tally of about 3, dead. In early , Norfolk voters instructed their delegate to vote for secession. Virginia voted to secede from the Union.http://leondumoulin.nl/language/magazines/the-secret-gift.php
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The battle ended in a stalemate, but changed the course of naval warfare; from then on, warships were fortified with metal. Wool and his forces.
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They held the city under martial law for the duration of the Civil War. Thousands of slaves from the region escaped to Union lines to gain freedom; they quickly set up schools in Norfolk to start learning how to read and write, years before the end of the war. The large Naval Review at the Exposition demonstrated the peninsula's favorable location and laid the groundwork for the world's largest naval base. Southern Democrats in Congress gained its location here. Commemorating the tricentennial anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the exposition featured many prominent officials, including President Theodore Roosevelt , members of Congress , and diplomats from twenty-one countries.
In the first half of the twentieth century, the city of Norfolk expanded its borders through annexation. In , the city annexed the incorporated town of Berkley , making the city cross the Elizabeth River. A series of bridges and tunnels, constructed during fifteen years, linked Norfolk with the Peninsula , Portsmouth , and Virginia Beach. In , the Downtown Tunnel opened to connect Norfolk with the city of Portsmouth.
The highways also stimulated the development of new housing suburbs, leading to the population spreading out.
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In the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional , as the public system was supported by all taxpayers. It ordered integration , but Virginia pursued a policy of " massive resistance ". At this time, most black citizens were still disfranchised under the state's turn-of-the-century constitution and discriminatory practices related to voter registration and elections.
The Virginia General Assembly prohibited state funding for integrated public schools. In , United States district courts in Virginia ordered schools to open for the first time on a racially integrated basis. The Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals declared the state law to be in conflict with the state constitution and ordered all public schools to be funded, whether integrated or not.
About ten days later, Almond capitulated and asked the General Assembly to rescind several "massive resistance" laws. With new suburban developments beckoning, many white middle-class residents moved out of the city along new highway routes, and Norfolk's population declined, a pattern repeated in numerous cities during the postwar era independently of segregation issues. In the lates and earlys, the advent of newer suburban shopping destinations along with freeways spelled demise for the fortunes of downtown's Granby Street commercial corridor, located just a few blocks inland from the waterfront.
The opening of malls and large shopping centers drew off retail business from Granby Street. Norfolk's city leaders began a long push to revive its urban core. While Granby Street underwent decline, Norfolk city leaders focused on the waterfront and its collection of decaying piers and warehouses. Many obsolete shipping and warehousing facilities were demolished. In their place, planners created a new boulevard, Waterside Drive, along which many of the high-rise buildings in Norfolk's skyline have been erected. In , the city and The Rouse Company developed the Waterside festival marketplace to attract people back to the waterfront and catalyze further downtown redevelopment.
Other facilities opened in the ensuing years, including the Harbor Park baseball stadium, home of the Norfolk Tides Triple-A minor league baseball team. In , the park was named the finest facility in minor league baseball by Baseball America. Downtown's rising fortunes helped to expand the city's revenues and allowed the city to direct attention to other neighborhoods. The city is located at the southeastern corner of Virginia at the junction of the Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake Bay.
The city of Norfolk is recognized as the central business district, while the Virginia Beach oceanside resort district and Williamsburg are primarily centers of tourism. Virginia Beach is the most populated city within the MSA though it functions more as a suburb. The CSA is the 32nd largest in the nation with an estimated population in of 1,, In addition to extensive riverfront property, Norfolk has miles of bayfront resort property and beaches in the Willoughby Spit and Ocean View communities.
Being low-lying and largely surrounded by water, Norfolk is particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels. In addition, the land on which it is built is slowly subsiding. When Norfolk was first settled, homes were made of wood and frame construction, similar to most medieval English-style homes. These homes had wide chimneys and thatch roofs. Some decades after the town was first laid out in , the Georgian architectural style , which was popular in the South at the time, was used.
Brick was considered more substantial construction; patterns were made by brick laid and Flemish bond. This style evolved to include projecting center pavilions, Palladian windows, balustraded roof decks, and two-story porticoes. By , homes, warehouses, stores, workshops, and taverns began to dot Norfolk's streets.
Norfolk was burned down during the Revolutionary War. After the Revolution , Norfolk was rebuilt in the Federal style, based on Roman ideals. Federal-style homes kept Georgian symmetry, though they had more refined decorations to look like New World homes. Federal homes had features such as narrow sidelights with an embracing fanlight around the doorway, giant porticoes, gable or flat roofs, and projecting bays on exterior walls. Rooms were oval, elliptical or octagonal. Few of these federal rowhouses remain standing today. A majority of buildings were made of wood and had a simple construction.
In the early nineteenth century, Neoclassical architectural elements began to appear in the federal style row homes, such as ionic columns in the porticoes and classic motifs over doorways and windows. Many Federal-style row houses were modernized by placing a Greek-style porch at the front. Greek and Roman elements were integrated into public buildings such as the old City Hall, the old Norfolk Academy, and the Customs House.
Greek-style homes gave way to Gothic Revival in the s, which emphasized pointed arches , steep gable roofs, towers and tracer-lead windows. The Freemason Baptist Church and St.
Mary's Catholic Church are examples of Gothic Revival. Italianate elements emerged in the s including cupolas , verandas , ornamental brickwork , or corner quoins. Norfolk still had simple wooden structures among its more ornate buildings. High-rise buildings were first built in the late nineteenth century when structures such as the current Commodore Maury Hotel and the Royster Building were constructed to form the initial Norfolk skyline.